Other elements of the master’s thesis

Here you will learn about other, not less important elements of the master thesis, such as methods of quoting, establishing footnotes, drawing tables and inserting drawings, highlighting text fragments, page numbering etc.


In fact, your work can consist of almost the same quotes / of course I’m joking – I do not advise you to do it if you want to get a good grade /, provided, however, that they will be properly marked and described. Remember that if you do not clearly indicate that you are quoting something, it can be treated as plagiarism. It is also accepted / is rather a habit / that a single quote should not be longer than 14 rows. Usually, it is enough if the quoted fragment is taken in quotation marks and the footnote contains the name of its author and place of publication / similarly as in the Bibliography – for a reminder: surname, first name, publication title, place and date of publication / and, necessarily, the page from which it is quoted the fragment comes from. For example, we quote:

“Here is the text quoted by you [with inclusions – P.Z.], which is also good to extend beyond the normal paragraph and sometimes emphasize [emphasis. P.Z.] more importantly, in your opinion, excerpts [note that my inclusions are a simple font – P.Z.] and with a footnote at the end “

It is also nice to use italics and additionally to distinguish a quote by moving it outside the paragraph, separating the text from the text as in the example above, unless it is a text inserted, short, not requiring such procedures, however, always requiring a footnote. Let’s now move to footnotes.


In the footnotes, you place the sources of fragments and data quoted by you. Here, too, you can afford your own comments and additional information not so much relevant to the whole work, but still considered worth your memories. In footnotes, you “decipher” shortcuts, translate foreign-language concepts, refer the reader to other items, etc. All of this, of course, provided you have not done it before in the right text. A footnote is your “margin” for additional comments.

Basically, it’s up to you to decide whether these should be endnotes or individual pages. It seems to me, however, that it is better to use footnotes for transparency, because it facilitates reading them. However, it is easier to make all footnotes in one place, at the end of the work, but nobody wants to look at this end, so especially if these footnotes are relevant to the content of the work, they are an inseparable part of your expression, use footnotes. Numbering of footnotes – any, you can also mark them with asterisks, may you only remember when choosing how to differentiate footnotes about consistency / in the whole work the same, on the same terms / and that they simply do not make a mistake.

At the end of remarks about footnotes a small reminder from high school:

  • Ibidem / ibid., Ib./ – “tamże”, you write, when the following footnotes refer to the same publication / only from eg other websites – then you write the page number after ibidem /;
  • See in. – “previously quoted”, you write when you refer to the publication you referred to earlier in the footnote, but later there was annotation about something else; if you use many “Op.cit.” `s, you can select the surname and name of the author after them / if necessary, page /; if you cite many items of the same author, you must use the title and the title in addition to his name, etc.

Tables and drawings

You have already had the opportunity to look at the article about Fonts, margins, page size . How do you do it, what and how you use it, it all depends on your concept. The same applies to all kinds of drawings. Just remember the basic things: a table or drawing must always have its own number, title and source:

  • number – especially if you intend to include more tables \ drawings in your work, and certainly when you want to join your work / before the bibliography / their list;
  • title – as presented in the table \ figure;
  • source – where does the drawing \ table / author, item etc. come from? as in footnote /, where the data in them comes from; if you have developed a drawing \ table, you simply write “Source: own study” and already.

Underlining and bolding

The issue of highlighting text fragments only requires two comments: do not abuse this way of selecting fragments or individual words; be consistent in the application of the distinguishing feature – if you decided to pay attention to the particularly important words or sentences by emphasizing them, emphasize in the whole work, if you want to bold them, do it in this way / of course, you can also want to highlight individual fragments with inclination; do so, however, bearing in mind that you do not confuse the usual distinction, eg with a quote. However, never mix these ways – it looks disorderly and unattractive. Either emphasize, or bite, or write in italics, never all this at once / separate matter – the titles of chapters and subsections – here you have a free hand, if only it looks nice and unpromising.

Other: page numbering, “hard space”

As for the case of page numbering, I will limit myself to saying that the number should not be on the first page of the job / that with your name and title of work /. In addition, number freely, any elegantly, modestly / without unnecessary ornamentation in the footer or header / and all work / you are not allowed to start each next chapter from page 1 – have you ever read a book so numbered? / And remember later to accurately reflect the order of pages in table of contents.

With “hard space”, we will call a space that does not allow us to separate words from each other. It is obtained in Word with the key combination Shift + Ctrl + space / check how it looks like – “Show \ hide ¶” on the taskbar /. The “hard space” is usually used to not leave lonely characters at the end of the line (e.g. i, z, w, że … / – they should be moved to the next row. In this text I do not use this rule / although I used a hard space in the last sentence of the previous paragraph, so that “I” did not happen at the end of the line, but if you want your work to look elegant, in the final version you can enter hard spaces between lonely characters and the following words so that all “and” and “that” disappear from the end of the poems.


And this is the end of this short “manual” of writing a thesis. I remind you that if you have any doubts about the technical side of your work, always ask the supervisor first, and if he can not point you in the right direction, take care of yourself with this web page and your own sense of aesthetics. It is also helpful to be able to download this page in Word / here / format – it contains all the settings ready for writing the master’s thesis. It is enough, therefore, to enter your text in the right places and already.